Dating of exodus
In the final plague, Yahweh kills all the firstborn children of Egypt, but the Israelites, who have been commanded to kill one lamb per family and smear its blood on their doorposts, are spared.
Yahweh commands that the Israelites observe a festival as "a perpetual ordinance" to remember this event (Exodus ).
Jethro comes to Moses with Moses's wife and sons; on Jethro's advice, Moses appoints judges for the tribes of Israel.
The Israelites reach the Sinai Desert and Yahweh calls Moses to Mount Sinai, where Yahweh reveals himself to his people and establishes the Ten Commandments and Mosaic covenant: the Israelites are to keep his torah (i.e.
Yahweh also speaks to Moses's brother Aaron; they both assemble the Israelites and perform signs so that they believe in Yahweh's promise.
Moses and Aaron then go to Pharaoh and ask him to let the Israelites go into the desert for a religious festival, but Pharaoh refuses and commands the Israelites to make bricks without straw and increases their workload.
The old pharaoh dies and a new one ascends to the throne.
The spies discover that the Canaanites are strong, and, believing that the Israelites cannot defeat them, the spies falsely report to the Israelites that Canaan is full of giants so that the Israelites will not invade (Numbers -33).
Its message is that Israel was delivered from slavery by Yahweh, and therefore belongs to him through the Mosaic covenant.