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It is also based on the premise that when the atoms of an element decay within a mineral or a rock, they stay there and don’t escape to the surrounding rock, water, or air.
One of the isotope pairs widely used in geology is the decay of K is a radioactive isotope of potassium that is present in very small amounts in all minerals that have potassium in them.
Moreover, the ages obtained by carbon-14 do not correspond to exact calendar years and thus require correction.
Some of the other important pairs are listed in Table 8.2, along with the age ranges that they apply to and some comments on their applications.