Models and relationship quality in dating
In recent studies, prevalence rates as high as 50% have been reported for cyber dating abuse (Borrajo et al., 2015).
Exposure to dating violence in all forms during emerging adulthood is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes involving diminished relationship quality (Marcus, 2004) and individual adjustment, including low self-esteem (Katz, et al., 2000), substance use (Eshelman & Levendosky, 2012), school dropout (Kaukinen, 2014), and feelings of depression and anxiety (Hanson, 2002).
Examples of cyber dating abuse include: sending threatening e-mails, posting hostile messages on the Internet, and obtaining personal information about the victim without his or her consent such as from emails or texts.
Cyber dating abuse is distinguished from traditional violence in two primary ways, both associated with easier perpetration (Melander, 2010).
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To understand these negative outcomes in greater detail, researchers have often sought to explore the impact of specific types of dating violence (e.g., Ellis, Crooks, & Wolfe, 2009).
However, the victims of dating violence typically experience a combination of two or more types of emotional, physical, psychological, or sexual abuse.
Early-onset of dating was also a risk factor for cyber dating abuse and emotional distress. These findings add to the growing body of evidence on the negative effects of cyber dating abuse and suggest that distressing emotional reactions may underlie the deleterious consequences of this form of abuse.According to the National Centre of Injury Prevention and Control (2016), dating abuse involves using psychological, physical, emotional, and/or sexual behaviors to gain and maintain power and control over one’s partner in a romantic relationship.