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Ongoing global warming is now affecting migratory cycles in a large variety of taxa in seasonally variable environments.
Disruption of migratory systems can cause population decline and affect ecosystem function across the globe.
In contrast, from the body size and gastrocentric hypothesis, the larger males can survive on lower quality diet and not be expected to follow the green wave equally close.
These hypotheses hence predict sexual differences in migration speed and duration, and in use of stopover sites (i.e.
This tendency to focus on the importance of spring phenology is not unique to the migration literature.
The climate change literature is currently biased towards studies performed during spring, largely neglecting the autumn season and therefore do not address how the characteristics of and drivers behind migration differ between the seasons).
The reproductive strategy-predation risk hypothesis states that males maximize their reproductive success by maximizing their body growth determining dominance rank and success in male-male combat during rut, while females should be risk-averse to maximize offspring survival.
Spring migratory movements were characterized by longer distance roamed, lower speed, lasted longer, more frequent use of stopovers, timing was more synchronized and coincided with onset of plant growth, and with higher daily activity levels.
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